Inclusion criteria: >18 years old with documentation of recurrent CDI, at least one recurrence after a primary episode and has completed at least two rounds of standard-of-care oral antibiotic therapy; diarrhea resolved, i.e., fewer than 3 watery bowel movements at the time of study enrollment for 48 hours or more; a positive stool test for the presence of C. difficile within 30 days prior to enrollment and standard C. difficile treatment.
Exclusion criteria: Known history of continued CDI diarrhea despite antibiotic treatment for CDI; requirement of continuous antibiotic therapy for a condition other than CDI; previous fecal transplant; previous treatment with RBX2660; history of inflammatory bowel disease(ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, microscopic colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, chronic diarrhea, celiac disease; colostomy; evidence of active colitis; intended exposure to antibiotics within 6 months after study enrollment; compromised immune system (white blood cell count <1000 cells/μL); current or expected use of systemic steroids
Antibiotics were discontinued 24-48 hours prior to first RBX7455 dose.
Participants received 8 RBX7455 capsules per day for four days (Cohort 1), 8 RBX7455 capsules per day for two days (Cohort 2), or 4 RBX7455 capsules per day for two days (Cohort 3).
Safety was assessed via a patient diary: in clinic at 1, 4, and 8 weeks and via telephone at 2, 3, between 5-7 weeks, and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months.
Success was defined as the absence of CDI at 8 weeks following completion of the last treatment. Treatment failure is defined as: recurrence of diarrhea <8 weeks after completion of RBX7455 treatment, a positive stool test for C. difficile, a need for retreatment for CDI, and no other cause for diarrhea.
Stool samples were collected at baseline and at 7, 30, and 60 days and 24 weeks after treatment.
Nine (9) RBX7455 drug product samples and 89 stool samples from treatment responders were sequenced using a shallow shotgun method (CoreBiome, Minneapolis, MN).
Multidimensional scaling analysis was performed on participant and RBX7455 operational taxonomic unit data according to a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric with non-metric scaling, and group mean relative taxonomic abundances at the class level were calculated by fitting to a Dirichlet-multinomial distribution.